The English founded colonies to escape oppression in England




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COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY ERA

"The English founded colonies to escape oppression in England." Explain


"Economic issues not religion determined the development of the English colonies in North America." Assess the validity of this quotation as it applies to FOUR of the following colonies before 1763.

Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island


AP 1990 “Throughout the Colonial period, economic concerns had more to do with the settling of British North America than did religious concerns.” Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to economic and religious concerns.


"Before 1763 British mercantilist policy, while restricting colonial economic development, allowed colonial political life to develop unhampered by the Mother Country." Evaluate this statement.


"The colonial wars fought between the British and the French for domination of the North American continent created a sense of national spirit among the British colonies and created the basis for later unity" Assess the validity of this statement.


"As long as the French controlled parts of North America, they accepted the Native American population as equal, whereas, the British colonists viewed them as hostile." Evaluate this statement.

“Britain’s wars for empire, far more than its mercantilist policies, dictated the economic fortunes of Britain’s North American colonies in the 18th century.” Assess the validity of this statement.


Between 1763 and 1789, the use and control of the frontier regions presented problems to both the British and the Americans. Describe the problems involved in the use and control of the frontier and explain how the British and the Americans attempted to solve them.


Analyze the ways in which colonial life and society changed from 1700 to 1775.


Comment on the extent to which each of the following contributed to a more democratic society in the American colonies: The Great Awakening, immigration and the Zenger case.


After 1763, in the face of recurring crises, the colonists slowly developed a theory of political independence and government. Describe these recurring crises and explain how they led the colonists to develop their theory of political independence and government.


Address the following statement: “The colonial policies of England did not create as many problems as their strategy of implementing those policies did.”


AP 1995 For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain’s policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the following: legislative assemblies; commerce; religion.


AP 1998 Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North American colonies prior to 1700.


Between 1763 and 1776, the colonists confronted many issues in their relations with England. Under the Articles of Confederation (1780-1789), the same major issues were behind the tensions of state/federal relations. Describe three of these issues and explain how the central government under the Articles of Confederation tried to solve them.


Defend British policies during the period 1763 and 1776.


What does the point of no return mean to you? Identify that point in colonial British relations between 1760 and 1776 and explain why you picked that event or date.


Might it be said that it was the British who were revolutionaries in 1763 and the colonists who were conservatives attempting to preserve the status quo? Explain.


Account for the widespread and enthusiastic colonial reception of Thomas Paine’s ^ Common Sense?


AP 1988 “This history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpation, all having, in direct object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States.” Evaluate this accusation made against George III in the Declaration of Independence.


AP 1986 “Despite the view of some historians that the conflict between Great Britain and its thirteen North American colonies was economic in origin, in fact the American Revolution had its roots in politics and other areas of American life.” Assess the validity of this statement.


AP 2010: “Analyze the political, diplomatic and military reasons for the United States victory in the Revolutionary War. Confine your answer to the period 1775-1783. “


AP 1996 “Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective form of government with respect to TWO of the following: foreign relations; economic conditions; Western lands.”


"The Declaration of Independence issued a call for a democratic government of equal citizens that was rejected by the writers of the Constitution who created an aristocratic government that benefited only the wealthy few." Assess the validity of this statement.


The government under the Articles of Confederation has been considered a failure. Describe four of the following events that occurred under the Confederation government and explain how these actions may or may not be considered failures of that government.

Treaty of Paris 1783 Land Ordinance 1785

Shays’s Rebellion 1786-1787 Annapolis Convention 1786

Northwest Ordinance 1787


Explain the connection between the ideas of the Enlightenment and the protest movement in the colonies against British imperial policy.


Discuss the United States as it existed under the Articles of Confederation. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Confederation government and how did the Constitution attempt to correct those flaws?


Analyze the extent to which the American Revolution represented a radical alteration in American political ideas and institutions. Confine your answer to the period 1775 to 1800.


What evidence is there for the assertion that the basic principles of the Constitution were firmly grounded in the political and religious experience of America’s colonial and revolutionary periods?


What do you think had the greatest influence on the development of the young republic during the decades of the 1790s? Discuss the problems confronting the nation in two categories: domestic affairs and foreign affairs.


Discuss with respect to the following, America’s first foreign policy, formulated by Presidents Washington and Adams, which had as it primary goal the avoidance of war: Citizen’s Genet controversy, Jay Treaty, Proclamation of Neutrality and the XYZ Affair.


Which of the following do you think made the most important contribution to the success of the American nation: Hamilton’s financial program, Washington’s Farewell address, or the Revolution of 1800? And, what do you think was the weakest moment of the new nation: the Alien and Sedition Acts, undeclared war with France or the Embargo Act of 1807? Discuss each of these, analyze the factors in a well-organized essay and select the ones you think are most important.


“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Assess this statement by President Jefferson with respect to (a) his domestic policies and (b) his foreign policies.


Why did the United States not go to war against England in 1794 and against France in 1798-99?


Why were political parties formed in the new nation and what were the major differences among political parties in the years 1791-1820?


“Although historically represented as separate parties, the Federalists and Whigs shared a common political ideology, representing many of the same interest groups and proposed similar programs and policies.” Assess the validity of this statement.


Each of the following individuals expressed strong opinions concerning the policies of the new nation. What opinions were expressed by TWO of the following? Of the two, whose opinions had the greatest impact on the new nation?

George Washington Alexander Hamilton

Thomas Jefferson John Marshall


How did the Jeffersonian Republicans' policy of economic boycott in the years 1807-1812 affect the new nation?


What events on the frontier had a major impact on national history in the years 1789-1829?


“Since the Treaty of Ghent addressed none of the issues for which the United States had fought, the War of 1812, has no positive consequences for the American nation.


During the Missouri debates, Jefferson expressed the fear that that question, “like a fireball in the night, awakened and filled me with terror.” Why? What was at stake in the Missouri debate that generated such profound concern?


It has been said that "America escaped from Europe between 1808 and 1823. Do you agree and why? Discuss with reference to the economy, politics, geography and diplomacy of the United States.


Who was the most effective and influential president in the period 1800-1824? Cite evidence that supports your choice.


Which of the following made the most important contributions to American nationalism? John Marshall, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay , John Q. Adams. Be sure to give a brief explanation of each and discuss all possibilities. Then explain why you chose a particular one more than the others. ANALYZE the factors in a well-organized essay.


AP 2001 The Jacksonian Period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man”. To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider TWO of the following in your response: Economic development, politics, reform movements.


AP 2000 Assess the moral arguments and political actions of thos opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of TWO of the following: Missouri Compromise, Mexican War. Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act.


Why was “democracy” no longer thought of as a dangerous tendency by the 1820s? What democratic features of American life would have amazed European visitors?


AP 1999 How did the following contribute to the reemergence of a two party system between 1820 and 1840? major political personalities, states rights, economic issues.


AP 1996 Analyze the extent to which the following influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840: Jackson’s economic policies, changes in electoral politics, Second Great Awakening, Westward movement


Why was Jackson considered to be representative of this popular democratic movement? What were his political strengths and weaknesses?


How did the election of Andrew Jackson as President reflect a fundamental shift in the balance of power in the US?


To what extent did Jacksonian Democracy reflect social and economic developments in the nation?


Jacksonian Democrats are often viewed as promoting political democracy, equal opportunity and personal liberty. Based on your knowledge of the 1820s, to what extent do you agree with this view?


Explain how three of the following political reforms of the Jacksonian era promoted a more democratic political process: nominating conventions, rotation in office, rise of third parties, spoils system, election of the president, public campaigns for office.


What is your assessment of the presidency of Andrew Jackson? Do you view his presidency as more of a success or more of a failure?


To what extent did Jacksonian Democracy reflect social and economic developments in the nation?


In what respects did EACH of the following represent in their expressed opinions and actions the viewpoint of the section of the nation from which he came?

Calhoun - the South

Clay - the West

Webster - New England


In what manner did the Jacksonian Revolution mark the establishment of democracy in America, whereas the Jeffersonian Revolution merely marked the arrival of a new party in political power?


The American people experienced periods of revolutionary change brought about by political action in the years 1783-1789 and 1828-1836. Describe two political changes in each time period and show how these changes were revolutionary.


List the five most important inventions of the early 19th century. Rank them in order of importance. Justify your ranking.


Explain the part played by each of the following in the industrialization of the American economy: technology, immigration, investment, government aid and internal improvements.


How can it be argued that the Erie Canal was the single most important accomplishment contributing to economic expansion prior to the coming of the railroad?


Historians have seen the reform movements of the 1830s and 1840s as both conservative and radical. Give at least two specific examples of how different aspects of the movement were conservative (that is, how they upheld institutions and values). Then suggest at least two specific examples of how other aspects were radical (that is, how they intended to overturn institutions and values). On balance, was reform a greater force for change or for preservation?


AP 1986 “In the first half of the 19th century the American cultural and intellectual community contributed to the development of a distinctive American national consciousness.” Assess the validity of this statement.


AP 1993 In what ways did early 19th century reform movements for abolition and women’s rights illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of democracy in the early American republic?


AP 1988 “American reform movements between 1820-1860 reflected both optimistic and pessimistic vies of human nature and society.” Assess the validity of this statement in relation to THREE of the following: Education, temperance, women’s rights, utopian experiments, penal institutions.


Assess the extent to which economic changes in American society encouraged the following reform movements: public education, temperance and women’s rights.


^ EXPANSION AND SLAVERY

“Slavery was the dominating reality of all Southern life.” Assess the validity of this generalization for the political, social and economic aspects of Southern life from 1840-1860


How and why did the antislavery movement become more radical over the period 1815 to 1860?


It has been said that with the invention of the cotton gin, the slave was tied to the gin and the planter to the slave. Do you agree or disagree?


It has been argued that both England and the North were tied to the South with “cotton threads.” Explain.


“Cotton production and slavery were more a burden to the South than a benefit.” Assess the validity of this statement.


What would be your view on slavery is you had been a typical

a. planter aristocrat

b. small slave owner

c. non-slave owning white

d. mountain southerner

e. free black

How did growth of the political parties between the 1820s and the 1860s reflect the divisiveness of the country?


AP 1991 “Although historically represented as separate parties the Federalists and Whigs shared a common political ideology, representing many of the same interest groups and proposed similar programs and policies.” Assess the validity of this statement.


In what ways did the concept of Manifest Destiny affect the foreign and domestic policies of the United States in the years 1840-1850?


“Although Americans perceived Manifest Destiny as a benevolent movement, it was, in fact, an aggressive imperialism pursued at the expense of others.”


In the period 1815 to 1860, improvements in transportation and increased interregional trade should have united Americans, but instead produced sectional division and finally disunion. Discuss with reference to the impact of improved transportation and increased interregional trade on the Northeast (New England and Middle Atlantic states), the South and the West.


List the following items in order of their importance as contributors to American expansion to the Pacific: land hunger, trade opportunities, suspicion of British intentions, Manifest Destiny. Justify your ranking and explain how each item contributed to territorial expansion.


Compare the expansionist policies of President Jefferson and President Polk.


Analyze the use of diplomacy by the United States in the following territorial disputes: annexation of Texas, boundary of Maine and boundary of Oregon.


Assess the extent to which slavery was the main cause of disunion and the Civil War.


Given the conflicting political and economic systems of the North and the South, was the Civil War inevitable?


You are a Southerner in 1858. Discuss events in the last decade that lead you to believe that the South can preserve its values in the future of the federal union.


Why did the South secede? Would the North have acquiesced in peaceful coexistence if the South had not fired on Fort Sumter? Which side was really the aggressor in starting the war?


AP 2010: Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into

Western territories contributed to the coming of the Civil War. Confine your answer to

the period 1845-1861.”


To what extent do you agree or disagree with the idea that the North had won the Civil War before it began?


Up to 1850, the North and the South were able to resolve their sectional differences through compromises; but, in the decade of the 1850s, compromise gave way increasingly to regional and sectional confrontation and crisis and finally to secession and civil war.” Using specific examples, show how and why compromise was possible from 1787 through 1850, and they why it became so difficult after 1850. Take into account such factors as political, social, economic and intellectual developments.


Rank the following in order of their importance to the coming of the Civil War: Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott decision, John Brown’s raid, Lincoln’s election. Justify your ranking by analyzing why each event was important.


Choose three causes of the Civil War and discuss thoughtfully. As you write, consider whether or not war could be avoided and a peaceful solution arrived at.


Analyze the ways that the Free-Soil movement influenced U.S. politics from 1848 to 1860.


Why was sectional compromise impossible in 1860, when such compromises had previously worked in 1787, 1820, 1833 and 1850? Since Lincoln had guaranteed to protect slavery in the states where it existed, why did the seven southern states secede as soon as he was elected?


How did THREE of the following lead to the secession of South Carolina in 1860?

a. Nullification Crisis of 1832-1833

b. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and its aftermath

c. Dred Scott Decision 1857

d. Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858

e. Election of Lincoln 1860


Assess the extent to which slavery was the main cause of disunion and the Civil War.


In what respects did the “Cotton is King” complex cause the Civil War?

“You are a Southerner in 1858. Discuss events in the last decade that lead you to believe that the South can preserve its values in the future of the federal union.”


“The sectional compromises of the first half of the 19th century were not in fact compromises but rather “sectional sellouts” in which the North gave in to the insistent demands of the slaveholding South.” Assess the validity of this statement.


Address the following: “The 1850s was a time of attempted compromise when compromise was no longer possible.”


In what ways are the issues that led to the Civil War similar to those that led to the American War for Independence?


Analyze the goals and strategies of Reconstruction of the following: President Lincoln, President Johnson and Congressional Republicans.

Describe two problems that were important causes of the Civil War and explain how the Civil War and Reconstruction provided solutions to the problems.


How did economic and political factors help cause the South to lose the Civil War?


“The North won the Civil War; the South won Reconstruction.” Do you agree? Why or why not?


W.E.B. Dubois stated that Reconstruction was a time in which, “The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back toward slavery.” What historical evidence supports Dubois’s thesis?


Explain how the following influenced the development of the last West from the 1850s to 1900: miners, cattlemen, and farmers.


The “Gilded Age” was a time when things appeared shiny and new from the outside, but a closer look at the underlayers revealed decay and corruption. What are some examples of this paradoxical image?


"In understanding the nature of a reform movement it is as important to know what it seeks to preserve as to know what it seeks to change." Compare the Populist and Progressive Reform movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in light of this statement.


"Both the Jacksonian Democrats between 1828 and 1836 and the Populists between 1890 and 1896 wanted to eliminate special privilege in American society. The Jacksonian Democrats succeeded; the Populists failed.' Assess the validity of this view.


Suppose that Hamilton and Jefferson had been able to see the United States in 1900. Which one would have celebrated and which one would have wept? Why?

How was government used in the Progressive movement to remedy the most pressing and dangerous ills of industrial society?

Describe the typical reforms at the municipal, state and national levels. What were the most important problems the progressives tried to solve? What were their main goals?

How did the characteristics and experiences of the “new” immigrants of the 1880-1914 period compare to those of the “old” immigrants who came before them?

Discuss why political historians often argue that the election of 1896 was a “turning point” election and a “Watershed year” in national politics.


List the five most outstanding achievements of Roosevelt’s presidency. Rank these five according to your assessment of their importance. Justify their ranking.


“Under Jacksonian democracy it seemed in the public interest to separate banking and government; under Wilson’s Progressivism it seemed in the public interest to join them.” Compare the economic philosophies behind each view and explain the conditions which brought about the change from one to the other.


"The nation (United States) whose Constitution is so perfect that no man suggests change and whose fundamental laws as they stand are satisfactory to all… The nation in which the right of the minority, the right of property and ….of free labor are most secure." In what ways is this statement an accurate summary of the situation in the United States at the end of the 19th century? To what extent do you agree or disagree with the statement?


"The closing of the frontier in 1890 had a profound effect on the social and economic development of the United States in the succeeding 20 years." Evaluate this statement.


In what ways did THREE of the following affect the development of the West?

Introduction of barbed wire Building of the railroads

Introduction of the McCormack reaper End of the Indian West


“Between 1790 and 1870 the economic growth of the United States was significantly stimulated by governmental aid.” Assess the validity of this statement.


Address the following statement” “Despite the great wealth produced by the industrial boom, class divisions in America were sharply divisive in the period 1880-1910.”


Business leaders of the late nineteenth century have been characterized both as greedy and unscrupulous “robber barons” AND as great “captains of industry” whose entrepreneurial skill and tactics produced economic growth. Which view do you find more persuasive? Why?

Show that control of the national government was closely divided between the two major parties from 1876 to 1896. How did this situation make for “an age of timid Presidents”? How did it stimulate the rise of the Populist Party?


The text authors contend that “more than any other single factor, the railroad network spurred the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years.” Do you agree? Why or why not?


Analyze the reason for relatively few congressional or presidential accomplishments during the Gilded Age, despite high voter participation in national politics.


Compare and contrast the National labor Union, Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor in regard to their origins, goals and leadership. Account for the failure of the first two and for the success of the AFL.


INTERNATIONAL Late 19th century through World War I.

In the period 1793-1812 the United States was a small nation pushed around by the big powers; in the period 1895-1911 the United States was a big power that pushed around small nations.


Why is it not entirely true that the United States remained isolated from world events in the late nineteenth century? Describe some specific instances of American involvement beyond its own shores between 1865 and 1900.


Rank the following in terms of their ability to explain American interest in “imperialism” at the end of the nineteenth century: racial theories, international rivalry, trading interests, religious humanitarianism. Justify your ranking.


Consider each of the following as a cause of war in 1898: public opinion, yellow journalism, business interests, strategic interests. Which do you consider the key cause of war? Why?


Assess the importance of the following in the U.S. decision to declare war against Spain in 1898: yellow journalism, sinking of the Maine, U.S. business interests, and the Cuban revolution.


Secretary of State John Hay remarked that the Spanish-American War was “a splendid little war.” Analyze the response of the following to that comment: William Jennings Bryan, Theodore Roosevelt, Alfred Thayer Mahan and Emilio Aguinaldo.Assess the wisdom of the Teller Amendment, the Platt Amendment, decisions rendered in the insular cases.


Had you lived at the time, would you have been in favor of war with Spain? Why or why not?


List the five most outstanding achievements of Roosevelt’s presidency. Rank these five according to your assessment of their importance. Justify your ranking scheme.

Compare the foreign policy of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson toward Latin America.


Populists often charged that there was a conspiracy between government and big business intending to hold down the farmer and worker and that federal “courts were only the tools of the plutocrats.” What evidence did they cite to “prove” this? Is their argument convincing to you? Why or why not?


Explain why the Populist party at first became the most successful third-party movement in American history up to that time. Then explain why it failed to survive the decade of the 1890s.


For many years the 1896 election was seen as the challenge of a champion of the people against the power of the candidate of big business and the status quo. Explain to what extent this view is an accurate assessment of the political forces at the time.


Political historians often argue that the election of 1896 was a “turning-point” election and a “watershed year” in national politics. Why?


Would you label Theodore Roosevelt a radical, liberal, moderate or conservative? Justify your choice.

Assess the contributions of the following to the influence and reforms of the Progressive movement: the middle class, muckrakers, philosophy of pragmatism and presidential leadership.


It has been said that “the progressives waged war on social evils – notably, monopolies, corruption, inefficiency and social injustices.” Identify at least one specific action undertaken by progressives to remedy a specific evil in each of the four categories in the quotation. Elaborate on the causes of each problem, its nature, and what progressives did about it.


One observation of progressives was that they believed “the cure for the ills of democracy was more democracy.” Apply this observation to progressive action in city and state governmental reform; then assess the accuracy of the observation.

AP 2010 Analyze the roles that women played in Progressive Era reforms from the 1880s through 1920. Focus your essay on TWO of the following:

Politics, social conditions, and labor and working conditions.


Assess the influence of U.S. involvement in World War I on the following:

African Americans, civil liberties, women and business.


Summarize the impact of American participation in World War I on the national economy, civil liberties and public attitudes.


The United States failed to join the League of Nations. Why? Consider the role of (a) Wilson himself, (b) Henry Cabot Lodge, (c) the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and (d) the American political tradition.


Assess the significance of Wilson’s moralistic idealism on his (a) call for American entry into World War I in 1917, (b) Fourteen Points, and (c) campaign for American participation in the League of Nations.


To what extent were Woodrow Wilson’s illness and his refusal to compromise responsible for the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles in the U.S. Senate?


AP 1986 DBQ To what extent was the 1920s a period of tensions between new and traditional values?


AP 1990 Compare American writers of the 20s and 30s in terms of how they criticize the US


Discuss the increase in social conflict during economic prosperity of the 1920s: religious fundamentalism, Ku Klux Klan, Prohibition, and nativism.


Compare Woodrow Wilson’s domestic policies with those of Calvin Coolidge.


Analyze the extent that the following reflect unilateral action taken by the United States in the 1920s to advance American interests and world peace: Kellogg-Briand Pact, tariffs, war debts and reparations, and the Washington Conference. AP 1999 Analyze the ways in which economic conditions and development in the arts help create the reputation of the “Roaring Twenties”


Do you think that the “noble experiment” of prohibition did more harm than good or vice versa? Explain your view by citing specific consequences of the prohibition movement.


Some historians have considered the tensions of the 1920s in terms of a rural backlash against a rising urban America. Do you agree with this proposition? Why or why not?


Explain how the automobile industry in the 1920s had an impact on the national economy similar to that of the railroad industry in the 1870s and 1880s.


What evidence was there through out the twenties that the economy was not as healthy as most believed? Why weren’t these weaknesses addressed?


Outline the causes of the great crash of 1929. Why did it come so unexpectedly?


Historians have not looked too kindly on the presidents of the twenties. They are usually judged as merely mediocre. Do you agree with this evaluation of their performance? Explain.


It was observed of the politics of the 1920s that what was needed was “less government in business and more business in government.” Interpret this remark. To what extent do you think that “need” was met by Republican policies in the twenties? Give examples.


Was isolation (from foreign involvement) enthroned in Washington? Do you agree? Why or why not? Cite specific episodes in international affairs that support your interpretation.


Was the American isolation of the 1920s linked to the rise of movements like the Ku Klux Klan? In what ways did movements like fundamentalism reflect similar “anti-modern” outlooks, and in what ways did they reflect more basic religious disagreements?


“The 1920s were a period of tension between new and changing attitudes on the one hand

and traditional values and nostalgia on the other. What led to the tension between old and new AND in what ways was the tension manifested?” (AP DBQ )


To what extent did the policies of the booming 1920s contribute to the depression?


Account for Herbert Hoover’s election victory in 1928. Consider the “liabilities” and advantages of the two candidates, the state of the economy and the public mood. What were the campaign issues? Why was Hoover so popular when he was elected?


What did Herbert Hoover do to combat the Great Depression? What more do you think he should have done? Why didn’t he? Some have referred to Hoover as the “Pioneer of the New Deal.” Would you agree with that statement? Why or why not?


How did the depression challenge the traditional belief of Hoover and other American in “rugged individualism?”


AP 1998 Analyze the extent to which US adopted an isolationist policy in the 1920s and 1930s.


President Franklin D. Roosevelt is commonly thought of as a liberal and President Herbert C. Hoover as a conservative. To what extent are these characterizations valid?

(AP 1984 DBQ)


AP 1994 Analyze how New Deal legislation (AAA, SEC, NLRA, SSA) attempted to fashion a more stable economy and equitable society.


AP 1996 To what extent did the Great Depression alter the American social fabric?


How did Roosevelt alter the role of the federal government in American life?


Which of Roosevelt’s measures were most effective in fighting the depression. Why?


Analyze the role of the following in explaining the causes of the Great Depression farm problems, income distribution, world trade and finance and government policy.How “revolutionary” was the New Deal. Evaluate the significant changes wrought by the New Deal and conclude how different the nation became because of it.


It has been said that Franklin Roosevelt “was, in fact, Hamiltonian in his espousal of big government, but Jeffersonian in his concern for the ‘forgotten man.’” Do you agree or disagree? Why?


American foreign policy leading up to involvement in the Second World War was greatly influenced by the continuing debate over the “lessons” of the 1914-1929 period.”


Assess President Roosevelt’s efforts to deal with the dangers of fascism and lead the nation away from a policy of isolationism in the context of the following: Panay incident, cash and carry, quarantine speech, and destroyers for bases deal.


Argue either for or against this statement: “President Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb was completely justified.”


How did Truman’s Fair Deal go beyond the reforms of the New Deal of the 1930s?


Trace the origins of the Cold War, considering the historical background of United States-Soviet relations, the wartime relationship and early postwar developments.


To what degree do you think each of the following contributed to the Cold War?

  1. President Truman’s style

  2. The Soviet Union’s security interests

  3. American expectations for the postwar world


Weigh the contributions made by both the United States and the Soviet Union to the developing Cold War. Do you think that the Cold War was inevitable? Why or why not?

If so, at what point did it become inevitable?


Though he was decidedly unpopular when he left the presidency, President Truman has since come to be viewed as one of America’s ten “greatest “ presidents. Do you agree or disagree? Explain why his popularity was so low in 1952 and why he is so well rated in retrospect.


Analyze the impact of the following on American-Soviet relations during the Truman presidency: atomic weapons, Marshall Plan, Berlin blockade, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.


Analyze the effects of the Cold War from 1946 to 1952 on the following: civil liberties, election politics and government size and spending.


“Harry S. Truman was a realistic, pragmatic President who skillfully led the American people against the menace posed by the Soviet Union.” Assess the validity of this

generalization for President Truman’ foreign policy from 1945 to 1953.


AP 1994 To what extent did the decade of the 1950s deserve its reputation as an age of political, social and cultural conformity?


AP 1997 Explain the appeal of McCarthyism.


AP 1984 Evaluate Truman’s foreign policy 1945-1953


AP 1996 Analyze US and Soviet relations 1945-1955


Analyze the effects of the Cold War on the following from 1946 to 1952:civil liberties, election politics, government size and spending.


To what extent did President Eisenhower continue the containment policy of Harry Truman?


In what ways was the Eisenhower era a time of caution and conservatism and in what ways was it actually a time of economic, social and cultural change?


To what extent were the 1950s an era of conformity and complacency?


Analyze the relative influence of African Americans and the federal government in the following civil rights cases:
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